小议NHET“猜测题’命题特点及实例解析

2019-08-20 15:10

“猜测题”顾名思义就是猜测词义、短语意思、句子意思以及作者意图等试题。在NMET阅读理解中,“猜测题”属于深层次理解的试题,主要包括猜测词义题、短语意思理解题以及单句猜意题。另外,还有变式题——指代类试题和猜测作者意图题。从历届高考试题来看,其比例一直稳中有升。以2005年全国卷和各省单独招生卷来看,猜测题的比例占总题量的12.5%。从考生的考后反思来看,大多数考生认为词汇量的不足导致失误太多。笔者通过教学实践发现:这种看法失之偏颇。词汇量不足对有些考生来讲是个人人为因素所致,却不是猜测题的应对失误的主导因素。从近几年试题来看,试题中考查内容并没有出现超越考试大纲要求的词汇。即使所谓的生词也是考试大纲允许范围内的3%的生词。为了更好地帮助考生形成正确的认识和培养行之有效的解题策略,笔者试对这一题型进行了分析和探究,并将自己的一点心得整理成文,以期对高考备战的考生有所帮助。

一、“猜测题”的命题分类及其主要命题形式

从考查要求来看,一般来说,“猜测题”的命题分为三类:一类是词汇类;一类是短语类;一类是单句类。从命题形式来看,“猜测题”也有三种形式:第一种是直陈式——开门见山地要求考生猜测某一单词义或短语义。如:

(NMET20051卷,61)The underlined word“detour”in Paragraph 5 means。

(NMET2005北京卷,71) In Paragraph 3,“take special pains”probably means“”。

第二种是隐性式——不对考生直接提出词汇理解要求,而是以词汇或短语或句子为载体,要求考生理解其衍生的意义。如:

(NMET2005湖北卷,60)The policemen were told“to look the other way”(the underlined part in Paragraph 2)so that。

(NMET2005湖南卷,65)By saying“I can’t put a number on it,”Radclifffe means she’s not sure。

第三种是变式题——这类题型于更高层次上的命题,主要有两种命题形式。一是指代类;一是猜测作者意图类。如:

(NMET 2005Ⅱ卷,50)The“Lazier and more inventive”criminal refers to。

(NMET2005江苏卷,75)What do you think the author is most likely to suggest if he continues to write

(NMET2005江西卷,47)In the third paragraph by saying“though there is no proof that this is the case,the writer means that。

二、“猜测题”解题困惑及对策

正如刚才上文中所提到的,一方面,考生对这类试题最大的感觉就是词汇的不足。另一方面,考生即使认识考查词汇,也不一定能准确理解其意义。在众多的考查试题中,有些考点词汇或单句也是一些普通内容,可是其在特定的语境中已被赋予了另外的含义。这就需要考生进行细致的观察和分析,进行合理的推理和判断才能准确理解其意义。例如:(NMET 2005 Ⅰ卷)

The study also provides an explanation for why middle children often seem to have a harder time in life than their siblings(兄弟姐妹).Lewis found that in families with three or four children,dinner conversation is likely to center on the oldest child, who has the most to talk about,and the youngest,who needs the most attention。“Middle, children are in visible,” says lewis.“When you see someone get up from the table and walk around during dinner,chances are it’s the middle child.”

68.By saying“Middle children are invisible”in Paragraph 3,Lewis means that

middle children·

A. have help their parents to serve dinner

B. get the least attention from the family

C. are often kept away from the dimmer table

D. find it hard to keep up with other children

简析:命题要考查的这句话可以说是常用词汇构成,而在做题中却不能以词义为突破口。以invisible(看不见的)词义为突破,则没有答案可选。其实这也帮助了考生。只有通过吃晚饭的上下文理解,我们可知:年长的小孩有很多话要说;年幼的要最多的关注,那年龄居中的小孩必然得到最少的注意了,所以答案应选择B。当然,我们也不能绝对认为“猜测题”就没有高级词汇的理解,这是一个客观存在。笔者认为:以猜义为载体,实质上却是考查考生的语言综合应用能力。换言之,“猜测题”不是单纯的词汇和单句翻译,而是考查考生在应对此类试题是否应用了语言学习的基本理念——“语篇意识”理念。因此,“猜义题”的解题关键就在于紧扣语境,具体地说,“猜义题”的解题涉及到语篇意识的应用、语汇的应用以及文化背景常识的积累等相关能力。下面笔者试节选一些高考实例来谈谈一些基本策略。

充分运用主题与论据的“破立关系”一般说来,文章的构思主要由主题和例证组成。其关系主要有补充、对立以及阐述等。了解这一手法,对“猜测题”的解答会有事半功倍的效果。如:(2005年天津卷B篇)

Lack of parent will power may contribute more to juvenile obesity than under-excising or overeating.

Research suggests that having overweight parents is a big influence(影响)upon a child’s weight,with one study finding that children with overweight parents were four times more likely to be overweight themselves.

39.What does the underlined phrase “juvenile obesity”mean

A.Adult education B.Childhood overweight

C.Parents’influence D.Growing pains

简析:此题没有下文论据做铺垫,就没有办法来猜测词义。而第二段的主题就提供了父母的肥胖对子女影响的信息。由此可见,答案应为B,

充分运用情节之间照应和话题照应

这类命题是“猜测题”中最普遍的试题,而情节和话题照应是所有试题都要考虑的因素。情节和话题的照应可以分为情节和话题间的对应、情节和话题间的相悖、情节和话题间的对比、情节和话题间的再现和情节和话题间的关系递进等。因为篇幅有限,这里只能以一例作剖析。如:

(2005年全国卷B篇)

Ottawa has given out special passes to some 300 US citizens in that area so they can enter the country when Canadian customs stations are closed,but the US stopped a similar program last May.That forces the people to a 200-mile.detour along hilly roads to get home through another border checkpoint.

61.The underlined work “detour”in Paragraph 5 means。

A.a driVe through the town B.a race across the field

C.a roundabout way of traveling D.a journeyin the mountain area

简析:此题如不结合情境,考生极易因下文中along hilly roads的误导而选择答案D。事实上,本段主要讲美国停止了在Ottawa入境处的处理方式——发放特别通行证。因此这里的居民要从另外一处回家,那肯定要绕路,所以答案应是C。

充分运用句式结构的呼应以及平行结构的一致或对立

这类试题与第三种解题思路相比,更为细节化。但它也需要以全文主旨或段落主题为指导,才能进行细节理解。如:(2005年辽宁卷A篇)

People who live in or near cities do not usually doop livestock. However,home builders use the fact that heat rises.This natural law call be used in building houses in these areas.Instead of keeping livestock on the first floor,builders fill in with large rocks.As they are open to the sun’s rays during cold weather,these rocks take in heat.They also give off the heat,and of course,the warm air rises into the living areas of the houses。……

58.The underlined words“natural law”in the third paragraph refer to the fact that。

A. heat raise the temperature in the houses

B.heat goes in the upward direction

C. heat goes up if temperature is raised

D. heat increases the temperature of rocks

简析:在通读全文的基础上,考生可以明白此文谈的是房屋取暖和节能的话题。而对划线部分的理解则完全要通过句式间的呼应。从This natural law短语中This可知其是指上文内容,即热量上升内容。选择答案B就可以了。

充分运用词汇定义

不可否认的是,这类试题已不是单纯的词义解释和翻译。它较多的是建立在情境理解基础上的意义。

(NMET2005北京卷)The animals are kept together in small spaces,with no privacy and little opportunity for mental and physical exercise.This results in unusual and self-destructive behavior called.zoochosis。……

65.In the state of.zoochosis,animals。

A. remain in cages B.behave strange

C. attack other animals D.enjoy moving around

简析:这是一个高级词汇,如果巧用了情境定义,答案就一目了然。这儿有一个过去分词作后置定语,zoochosis是与unusual(不同寻常)和self-destructive(自残)同一内涵,所以答案B是最佳选择。

三、作者意图与段落和全文主旨的呼应

这类试题主要是要求考生判断阅读材料的写作目的或作者表现的情感态度,可以理解为猜测题也可以理解成推断题。虽然从表面上看,有猜测作者意图的意思,但考生在应对此类试题时要尊重原文作者的思想,不可以己之见来主观臆断。例如:(NMET2005江苏卷,B篇)。

Hi,everybody!

Welcome to our newly-opened Richards Cinema Bookstore!

Now let me introduce to you some of the mew film books in our store.

Are you Chinese film fans OK, here comes the latest 25New takes about Chinese films.It is a collection Of 25 fresh readings of different Chinese films from the 1930s to the present.

In our bookstore,you call also find bools about Mexican,Japanese,Australian,Germany and ltalian films.

Well,please help yourselves to some coffee Or tea,and have a good time here.

63.The purpose Of the speaker is。

A. to satisfy the customers’ various tastes

B. to keep the authors in the cinema bookstore

C. to offer the tourists chances to meet the film stars

D. to turn the readers into film produces

简析:从文章的体例考生可以明白:本文主要介绍自己书店的特色——拥有全世界的电影书籍。从生活常识来看,书店成功就需要满足不同读者的需要。由此可知,答案A是最佳答案。

又如:(NMET2005浙江卷,B篇)

Builders of ecopassages try to make them look like a natural part of an area by planting trees on and around them.Animals seem.to be catching on.Animals as different as salamanders and grizzly bears are using the bridges and underpasses.

47.When the writer says that animals seem“to be catching on”, he means·

A.animals begin to realize the dangers on the road

B.animals begin to learn to use ecopassages

C.animals are crossing the road in groups。

D.animals are increasing in number

简析:虽然题干是问作者的意思,实际上,此题还是要从原文中的作者的表述来寻找信息源。当然,考生更不能去挖空心思想catch on这一词组意思。从下文中Animals as different as salamanders and grizzly bears are using the bridges and underpasses可知此题选择答案B。

综上所述,“猜测题”虽然是阅读理解题中考查考英语语言综合应用能力的深层次理解题,但其应对策略却时刻围绕一个中心展开——构建“语篇意识”。因此,考生在应对此类试题时,要时刻牢记一个准则:“词不离句,句不离篇’。只有这样,考生才能对之应对自如。